Joalet D. Steenkamp

Chief Engineer, Pyrometallurgy Division, Mintek

PrEng   BEng   BEng.Hons   MEng   PhD   FSAIMM   MTMS

Joalet Steenkamp Joalet Steenkamp (46) joined Mintek in 2014 after completing her PhD studies. Prior to that, she had 14 years’ experience in industry – operations, projects, and research environments (steelmaking, ilmenite roasting and smelting, and manganese ferro-alloy production) – and 3 years’ experience in academia where she taught courses in pyrometallurgy on both undergraduate and postgraduate level.

Joalet’s main research interests are furnace containment, with special emphasis on furnace tapping, and production of manganese ferro-alloys. She mainly conducts industrial research for which she was recognised by professional bodies both locally and abroad.

Joalet holds B.Eng., B.Eng.Hons., M.Eng., and Ph.D. degrees in Metallurgical Engineering, all conferred by the University of Pretoria in South Africa. She is a registered professional engineer (Pr.Eng.) with the Engineering Council of South Africa (ECSA). Joalet is a Fellow of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (SAIMM) where she was the founder and chair of the organising committees of the series of Schools on Production of Manganese Ferro-alloys and the series of Conferences on Furnace Tapping. Joalet is also a member of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS). She serves on a number of committees at these two professional bodies, and peer reviews publications for them on a regular basis. In 2018, TMS invited Joalet to serve as the chair of the newly established Industrial Advisory Committee for a period of two years and as member for three years.

The South African National Research Foundation (NRF) rated Joalet in 2018 as an ‘Established Researcher' for a period of six years. In 2019, the University of the Witwatersrand appointed Joalet as Visiting Adjunct Professor in the School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering for a period of three years.

Joalet is married and blessed with two children. Her hobbies include photography – her furnace photography received international recognition [1] –, reading, gardening, hiking, and travelling.


List of publications

Joalet’s list of publications includes her masters’ dissertation [2], Ph.D. thesis [3], papers in peer-reviewed journals [4]–[29], papers in peer-reviewed conference proceedings [30]–[49], and a chapter in a textbook [50]. She was co-supervisor of four master’s theses successfully completed at NTNU in Norway [51], University of Pretoria [52], University of Stellenbosch [53], and Wits University [54] in South Africa.

[1]     L. Robinson, “Joalet Steenkamp takes the heat for furnace photography,” JOM, vol. 68, pp. 2974–2975, 2016.
[2]     J.D. Steenkamp, “Beneficiation of an ilmenite waste stream containing undesirable levels of chromite,” Masters in Engineering, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa, 2003.
[3]     J.D. Steenkamp, “Chemical wear of carbon-based refractory materials in a silicomanganese furnace tap-hole,” University of Pretoria, 2014.
[4]     J.D. Gouws and J.P. Van Dyk, “Ilmenite beneficiation by roasting and magnetic separation.,” in 3rd International Heavy Minerals Conference, Fremantle, Australia, 2001, pp. 209–214.
[5]     J.D. Steenkamp and P.C. Pistorius, “Kinetics of chromite vs. ilmenite magnetization during oxidative roasting of ilmenite concentrates,” in 4th International Heavy Minerals Conference, Cape Town, South Africa, 2003, pp. 199–206.
[6]     J.D. Steenkamp, P.C. Pistorius, and N. Allen, “Reflections on ilmenite roasting and magnetic separation.,” in 5th International Heavy Minerals Conference, Florida, USA, 2005, pp. 133–141.
[7]     G. Williams and J.D. Steenkamp, “Heavy Mineral Processing at Richards Bay Minerals,” in Southern African Pyrometallurgy Conference, Johannesburg, South Africa, 2006, pp. 181–188.
[8]     J.D. Steenkamp, M. Tangstad, and P.C. Pistorius, “Thermal conductivity of solidified manganese- bearing slags — A preliminary investigation,” in Southern African Pyrometallurgy 2011, Johannesburg, South Africa, 2011, pp. 327–344.
[9]     S. Nkosi, J.D. Steenkamp, D.R. Groot, and J.P. Gous, “Hydrometallurgical process for the recovery of manganese from pelletized silicomanganese submerged arc furnace dust (SAFD),” in Fray international symposium - Aqueous, low temperature and electrochemical processing, Cancun, Mexico, 2011, pp. 309–320.
[10]     J. Muller and J.D. Steenkamp, “An Evaluation of Thermochemical Property Models for CaO-MnO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO Slag,” in Ninth international conference on molten slags, fluxes and salts, Beijing, China, 2012.
[11]     H. Mølnås, J.D. Steenkamp, and M. Tangstad, “Validating temperature readings obtained from a thermocouple-based temperature measurement system used in a pyrometallurgical application,” in International Smelting Technology Symposium (Incorporating the 6th Advances in Sulfide Smelting Symposium), Orlando, FL, USA, 2012, pp. 259–277.
[12]     J.D. Steenkamp, M. Tangstad, P.C. Pistorius, H. Møln\a as, and J. Muller, “Corrosion of taphole carbon refractory by CaO-MnO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO slag from a SiMn production furnace,” in INFACON XIII, Almaty, Kazakhstan, 2013, pp. 669–676.
[13]     J. Muller and J.D. Steenkamp, “Evaluation of HCFeMn and SiMn slag taphole performance using CFD and thermochemical property modelling for CaO-MnO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO slag,” in INFACON XIII, Almaty, Kazakhstan, 2013.
[14]     D. Groot, D. Kazadi, H. Pöllmann, J. De Villiers, T. Redtmann, and J. Steenkamp, “The recovery of manganese and generation of a valuable residue from ferromanganese slags by a hydrometallurgical route,” in INFACON XIII, Almaty, Kazakhstan, 2013, pp. 1051–1060.
[15]     J.P. Gous, J.H. Zietsman, J.D. Steenkamp, and J.J. Sutherland, “Excavation of a 48 MVA silicomanganese submerged-arc SiMn furnace in South Africa – Part I: Methodology and Observations,” in 5th International Symposium on High-Temperature Metallurgical Processing, Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2014, pp. 255–269.
[16]     J.D. Steenkamp, J.P. Gous, P.C. Pistorius, M. Tangstad, and J.H. Zietsman, “Wear analysis of a tap-hole from a SiMn production furnace,” in Furnace Tapping 2014 Conference, Muldersdrift, South Africa, 2014, pp. 51–64.
[17]     S. Mgenge and J.D. Steenkamp, “Furnace tapping practice at Tronox Namakwa Sands,” in Furnace Tapping 2014 Conference, Muldersdrift, South Africa, 2014, pp. 137–146.
[18]     J.D. Steenkamp and P.C. Pistorius, “Tap-Hole Wear: Analysis of Daily Average Slag And Metal Compositions of A Single SiMn Smelter,” in The Fourteenth International Ferroalloys Congress, 2015, pp. 505–510.
[19]     J.D. Steenkamp, C.J. Hockaday, and J.P. Gous, “Analysis of electrical energy dissipation in submerged-arc furnaces producing silicomanganese,” in EEC11 - 11th European electric steelmaking conference & expo, Venice, Italy, 2016.
[20]     W. Banda, J.D. Steenkamp, and E. Matinde, “Chemical wear of carbon and silicon carbide-based refractory materials by silicomanganese metal,” in EEC11 - 11th European electric steelmaking conference & expo, Venice, Italy, 2016. [21]     H.J. Van Zyl, W.G. Bam, and J.D. Steenkamp, “Identifying barriers faced by key role players in the South African manganese industry,” in Through the looking glass, Stonehenge in Africa, North West, 2016.
[22]     J.D. Steenkamp, G.M. Denton, and D.A. Hayman, “Insulating or conductive lining designs for electric furnace smelting?,” in Applications of Process Engineering Principles in Materials Processing, Energy and Environmental Technologies: A Symposium in Honor of Professor Ramana G. Reddy, San Diego, California, USA, 2017, pp. 209–220.
[23]     J. Chetty and J.D. Steenkamp, “Excavation method for a 2.4 m diameter pilot-scale furnace,” in UNITECR 2017 - 15th Biennial Worldwide Congress, Santiago, Chile, 2017, pp. 305–308.
[24]     J.D. Steenkamp, W.G. Bam, E. Ringdalen, M. Mushwana, S.A.C. Hockaday, and N.A. Sithole, “Working towards an increase in manganese ferroalloy production in South Africa – a research agenda,” in INFACON XV, Cape Town, South Africa, 2018.
[25]     N.A. Sithole, W.G. Bam, and J.D. Steenkamp, “Comparing Electrical and Carbon Combustion Based Energy Technologies for the Production of High Carbon Ferromanganese: A Literature Review,” in INFACON XV, Cape Town, South Africa, 2018.
[26]     J.D. Steenkamp, M. Mnisi, and A. Skjeldestad, “The workability index of three tap-hole clays,” in Infacon XV, Cape Town, South Africa, 2018.
[27]     J.D. Steenkamp, J.P. Gous, W. Grote, R.D. Cromarty, and H.J. Gous, “Process zones observed in a 48 MVA submerged arc furnace producing silicomanganese according to the ore-based process,” in Extraction 2018, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 2018, pp. 639–651.
[28]     J.D. Steenkamp, “Wear analysis of tap-holes at two ferrochromium production furnaces,” in Furnace Tapping 2018, Kruger National Park, South Africa, 2018, pp. 11–28.
[29]     J.D. Steenkamp, Q.G. Reynolds, M.W. Erwee, and S. Swanepoel, “Freeze-lining formation in submerged arc furnaces producing ferrochrome alloy in South Africa,” in Supplemental Proceedings, San Antonio, Texas, United States, 2019, pp. 1161–1180.
[30]     J.D. Steenkamp and P.C. Pistorius, “Kinetics of chromite vs. ilmenite magnetization during oxidative roasting of ilmenite concentrates,” J. South Afr. Inst. Min. Metall., no. October 2003, pp. 501–508, Oct. 2003.
[31]     A. De Meyer and J.D. Steenkamp, “Optimizing yield of metallic zinc tapped from a zinc smelter by studying factors causing zinc losses to dross,” J. South. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall., vol. 110, no. April, pp. 169–174, 2010.
[32]     J. Steenkamp, H. Kotzé, J. Meyer, and J. Barnard, “Magnesia refractory dryout–managing the risk of hydration,” J. South. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall., vol. 111, no. June, pp. 423–428, 2011.
[33]     J.D. Steenkamp and J. Basson, “The manganese ferroalloys industry in southern Africa,” J. South. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall., vol. 113, pp. 667–676, 2013.
[34]     J. Muller and J.D. Steenkamp, “An evaluation of thermochemical property models for CaO-MnO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO slag,” J Manuf Sci Prod, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 251–262, 2013.
[35]     J.D. Steenkamp, P.C. Pistorius, and M. Tangstad, “Wear mechanisms of carbon-based refractory materials in silicomanganese tap-holes - Part 1: equilibrium calculations and slag and refractory characterisation,” Metall. Mater. Trans. B Process Metall. Mater. Process. Sci., vol. 46B, no. 2, pp. 653–667, 2015.
[36]     J.D. Steenkamp, P.C. Pistorius, and M. Tangstad, “Wear mechanisms of carbon-based refractory materials in SiMn tap-holes - Part 2: In-situ observation of chemical reactions,” Metall. Mater. Trans. B Process Metall. Mater. Process. Sci., vol. 46B, no. 2, pp. 668–679, 2015.
[37]     J.D. Steenkamp, P.C. Pistorius, and M. Tangstad, “Chemical Wear Analysis of a Tap-hole on a SiMn Production Furnace,” J. South. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall., vol. 115, pp. 199–208, 2015.
[38]     J.D. Steenkamp and L. Du Preez, “What is clean steel?,” J. South. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall., vol. 115, no. June, pp. 557–561, 2015.
[39]     J.D. Steenkamp, P.C. Pistorius, and J. Muller, “Insights into the potential for reduced refractory wear in silicomanganese smelters,” J. South. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall., vol. 116, no. January, pp. 101–108, 2016.
[40]     J.D. Steenkamp, J.J. Sutherland, D.A. Hayman, and J. Muller, “Tap-hole life cycle design criteria: A case study based on silicomanganese production,” J. Met., vol. 68, no. 6, pp. 1547–1555, 2016.
[41]     D.M. Kazadi, D.R. Groot, J.P.R. De Villiers, J.D. Steenkamp, and H. Pöllmann, “Control of silica polymerisation during ferromanganese slag sulfuric acid digestion and water leaching,” Hydrometallurgy, vol. 166, no. December, pp. 214–221, 2016.
[42]     J.D. Steenkamp, C.J. Hockaday, J.P. Gous, and T.W. Nzima, “Dissipation of electrical energy in submerged arc furnaces producing silicomanganese and high-carbon ferromanganese,” JOM, vol. 69, no. 9, pp. 1712–1716, 2017.
[43]     J.D. Steenkamp, C.J. Hockaday, J.P. Gous, W. Clark, and A. Corfield, “Arcmon for process control in silicomanganese production: a case study,” JOM, vol. 69, no. 12, pp. 2666–2670, 2017.
[44]     J.D. Steenkamp et al., “Silicomanganese production at Transalloys in the twenty-tens,” J. South. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall., vol. 188, no. 3, pp. 309–320, Mar. 2018.
[45]     J.D. Steenkamp, W.G. Bam, E. Ringdalen, M. Mushwana, S.A.C. Hockaday, and N.A. Sithole, “Working towards an increase in manganese ferroalloy production in South Africa – a research agenda,” J. South. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall., vol. 118, no. 6, pp. 645–654, 2018.
[46]     J.D. Steenkamp, W.G. Bam, and S.P. Tsebe, “Variables Applicable to Benchmarking of Tap-Hole Life-Cycle Management Practices in Coke-Bed-Based Ferroalloy Production,” JOM, 2018.
[47]     N.A. Sithole, N. Rambuda, J.D. Steenkamp, D.A. Hayman, and C.J. Hockaday, “Silicomanganese production at Mogale Alloys,” J. South. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall., vol. 118, no. 11, pp. 1205–1216, 2018.
[48]     J.D. Steenkamp, “Wear analysis of tap-holes at two ferrochromium production furnaces,” J. South. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall., vol. 119, no. 6, pp. 537–544, 2019.
[49]     J.D. Steenkamp, D.A. Hayman, and P.J.A. Bezuidenhout, “Benchmark for tap-hole lifecycle management practices in silicomanganese production when submerged arc furnace technology of circular design is applied,” JOM, vol. 71, no. 7, pp. 2430–2434, 2019.
[50]     M. Tangstad, J.P. Beukes, J.D. Steenkamp, and E. Ringdalen, “Coal-based reducing agents in ferroalloys and silicon production,” in New trends in coal conversion - Combustion, gasification, emissions, and coking, Duxford, United Kingdom: Woodhead Publishing, Elsevier, 2019, pp. 405–438.
[51]     H. Mølnås, “Compatibility Study of Carbon-Based Refractory Materials Utilized in Silicomanganese Production Furnaces,” Masters Thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Norway, 2011.
[52]     J. Muller, “Evaluation of HCFeMn and SiMn Slag Tapping Flow Behaviour Using Physicochemical Property Modelling and Analytical Flow Modelling,” Masters in Engineering, University of Pretoria, 2014.
[53]     H.J. Van Zyl, “Identifying barriers to growth in mineral value chains: an analytical framework approach,” University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, 2017.
[54]     W.K. Banda, “Chemical wear of carbon-based refractory material by silicomanganese,” Dissertation for MSc in Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, 2019.


Copyright © 2015-2019, Joalet Steenkamp, JoaletS@mintek.co.za, Randburg, South Africa (Last updated on 2 December 2019)
Pyrometallurgy Division, Mintek, 200 Malibongwe Drive, Private Bag X3015, Randburg, 2125, South Africa
Phone: +27-11-709-4181       Fax: +27-11-793-6241